Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

POP Center Tools Analyzing and Responding to Repeat Offending Endnotes

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1. Gabor (1994); Farrington (1992); Budd et al. (2005).

2. Wallerstein and Wyle (1947), quoted in Gabor (1994). 

3. Farrington (1992); Budd et al. (2005). 

4. Wolfgang et al. (1972), cited in Farrington (1992); Budd et al. (2005); Home Office 
Statistical Bulletin (1989).

5. This distinction is due to Moffitt (1993).

6. Bernburg and Krohn (2003); Sampson and Laub (1995). 

7. Laub and Sampson (2001, 2003); Homel (2005).

8. Wilson (1987); Sampson (2012); Sampson and Groves (1989).

9. Trickett et al. (1992).

10. Everson (2003); see also Bernasco (2008), who again finds evidence for same offender involvement in “near repeat” burglaries (those that are geographically close to one another) as well as repeat crimes against the same address.

11. Gill and Pease (1998).

12. Everson and Pease (2001).

13. Langman (2005); Flynn (2008).

14. Sampson et al. (1997). 

15. Tilley (2009), drawing on data from Farrington et al. (2006).

16. See Laub and Sampson (2003); Homel (2005).

17. Beck and Shipley (1989); Langan and Levin (2002); Pew Center on the States (2011); 
Shepherd and Whiting (2006).

18. U.S. Department of Justice (2010).

19. Taylor and Chaplin (2011).

20. Blumstein et al. (2010). The authors acknowledge their study is possibly limited because it is based on data from 1978 and note that it would be useful to collect more up-to-date information.

21. www.temple.edu/cj/misc/nr/ 

22. Vollaard (2010a, 2010b, 2011).

23. Vollaard (2010a, 2010b, 2011).

24. Abrahamse and Ebener (1991).

25. Kleiman (2009: 91).

26. Townsley and Pease (2002).

27. Kleiman (2009: 93).

28. Blumstein et al. (2010).

29. Rates calculated from crime reporting rates given in Chaplin, Flatley, and Smith (2011) and sanction detection rates shown in Taylor and Chaplin (2011).

30. Braga et al. (2001). 

31. Kleiman (2009: 41–44). 

32. See, for example, Kennedy (2009); Kleiman (2009).

33. Goldstein (1990: 121–122).

34. Kennedy et al. (2001).

35. Hayes (2007: 439).

36. Martinson (1974).

37. Palmer (1975); Glaser (1977); Martinson (1979). 

38. Lipsey et al. (2007).

39. Homel (2005).

40. See Tilley (2009).

41. Marsden and Farrell (2002).

42. See Tilley (2009).

43. Lancashire Constabulary (2003: 4).

44. Spelman (1990).

45. Bradbury (2001).

46. Spelman (1990: 253–260).

47. Goldstein (1990: 105).

48. See, for example, Blumstein et al. (1986).

49. The term “offender self-selection” is due to Ken Pease. See Chenery et al. (1999). 

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