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Your analysis of your local problem should give you a better understanding of the factors contributing to it. Once you have analyzed your local problem and established a baseline for measuring effectiveness, you should consider possible responses to the problem.
The following response strategies are drawn from a variety of research studies and police problem-solving efforts; several of them may apply to your community's problem. It is critical that you tailor responses to local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on reliable analysis. In most cases, an effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses. Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem. Do not limit yourself to considering what police can do; give careful consideration to who else in your community shares responsibility for the problem and can help police better respond to it.
Unfortunately, there are few careful evaluations of tourist crime interventions. Much of what is recommended here is based on informed judgments about what is likely to be effective. More rigorous evaluations are needed.
To deal with crimes against tourists, the New Orleans and Orlando, Fla., police departments have created special units with selected personnel specifically to protect tourists. Both agencies require that officers be highly trained in tourism issues, as well as visible to and gregarious with tourists; work closely with related local associations and bureaus; advise rental property employees regarding crime prevention techniques; and recommend that tourist-industry employees (especially those in the security field) undergo thorough background checks—and be heavily punished if found guilty of committing tourist crimes.22
The goal of the Newark (N.J.) Downtown District (NDD) is to create a safer, cleaner, well-managed area for people to conduct business and live in. The NDD—a nonprofit, special-improvement business district composed of 425 commercial properties—contracts with a single company to operate and manage the Holiday Safety Ambassador Program for three months per year, to supplement basic services already provided. The duties of the uniformed "safety ambassadors" include being the eyes and ears of the police, including serving as a police witness and filling out police reports when necessary; offering information and directions to pedestrians; reporting misconduct or suspicious incidents to the police; responding appropriately to crises; being familiar with all events and tourist attractions; and periodically checking new, closed, or relocated businesses.25
† See Disorder at Budget Motels in this series, for further information about preventing crime and disorder in motels.
You might also encourage hotels and motels to provide safety tips on their website or in-house cable TV channel.
6. Offering rewards for information leading to the arrest and conviction of those who commit serious crimes against tourists. The tourism industry may be willing to help finance reward programs. In Miami, the local government developed such a program, in conjunction with Crime Stoppers and the tourist industry.27
The early 1990s saw a plague of violent crimes against tourists in Dade County, Fla. Several murders of foreign tourists brought worldwide media attention, and both the county and the greater Miami area were portrayed as dangerous places to visit. Miami International Airport was the focal point of such crimes, including "smash and grab," "driveway," and "highway" robberies, in which criminals preyed on people leaving the airport in easily identifiable rental cars. Other rental-car drivers became victims after getting lost once they left the airport. To address the problem, the Metro-Dade Police Department† (1) increased visible uniform patrols, (2) adopted a problem-oriented approach to improve the area and generate support from local businesses and other government agencies, and (3) implemented a tourist safety program, to provide safety information. In addition, the Florida legislature passed a law requiring that regular license plates be issued to replace the easily identifiable ones on rental vehicles, the county required that maps and directions be provided with every rented vehicle, and identifying stickers were removed from rental vehicles. Over 500 directional signs were installed, many in the airport area, and a tourism safety video was shown on many inbound international flights. Officers were trained to contact lost or confused motorists, and give them an escort if necessary. They were also equipped with cell phones, maps, brochures, and other information in a variety of languages, to distribute as necessary. The police devoted four to five times the normal level of resources to the airport area, using several special responses (for example, using decoy parked police cars, conducting undercover operations targeting "hot spots," and deploying motorcycle patrols during peak times). They also established a tourist hotline, started a newsletter, and set up a 24-hour information counter in the airport. In the two years following the initiative, crimes against visitors dropped in the area: robberies decreased by 50 percent, and auto thefts by 79 percent.30
† The police department is now called the Miami-Dade Police Department.
7. Educating tourists to reduce their risk of victimization. Police in tourist areas should develop an array of methods for educating tourists about crime prevention.28 Among those you might consider are the following:
† See Robbery at Automated Teller Machines, Guide No. 8 in this series, for information about crime prevention at ATMs.
‡ See the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department's website, at www.lvmpd.com, for an example of tourist safety information.
The following are some common safety tips that particularly pertain to tourists:
All tourist information should be available in the languages most commonly spoken by visitors to the area.
8. Increasing uniform patrols in tourist areas. Highly visible police patrols can discourage offenders who target tourists and increase tourists' sense of safety, but obviously, they are labor-intensive and therefore costly.
Problems arose with rental car burglaries in parking lots near the U.S.S. Arizona Memorial in Honolulu (for example, thieves used binoculars to spot tourists putting valuables in their car trunks). In response, surveillance cameras were added to complement foot patrols, a rental storage unit was installed for tourists' belongings, and car- rental-company bumper stickers were removed.31 Similarly, thefts from tourists' vehicles at Honolulu recreation areas posed a serious problem in the mid-1990s. The offenders knew the best approach and escape routes, quickly and efficiently broke into locked cars, and typically were drug abusers with prior records for related types of crimes. The police addressed the problem by using high-visibility patrols (including bicycle and all-terrain vehicle units) in high-crime areas, providing information to tourists, gathering intelligence and investigating known suspects, and using bait cars. Thefts from vehicles declined from a high of 188 reported cases in January 1997, to a low of four cases in December 1997.32
† The city of Wellington, New Zealand, runs a program called Walkwise that deploys trained civilian safety officers at all times in the citys central business district. The officers act as ambassadors and work closely with police, intervening in low-level disorder problems and reporting more-serious offending.
10. Conducting surveillance at high-risk locations. Surveillance should be based on local intelligence about problem areas and times. In general, surveillance is time-consuming and costly, and is effective at reducing crime only if it results in the apprehension of especially prolific offenders.
The cities of Orlando and Miami have erected special highway signs that provide directions for visitors. The signs are placed along airport expressways near car rental companies. The "Follow the Sun" project has involved the strategic placement of 400 new road signs bearing a tourist-friendly sunburst logo to help non-English-speaking visitors find their way.
† For an excellent discussion of various ways to safely move and handle large crowds of visitors through environmental design, see Shearing and Stenning (1997). [Full text]
When visitors enter Disney World in Orlando, they are greeted by a series of smiling young people who, with the aid of clearly visible road markings, direct them to the parking lot, remind them to lock their car and to remember its location, and direct them to wait for the train that will take them to the amusements area. At the boarding location, they are directed to stand safely behind guardrails and to board in an orderly fashion, and once on the train, they receive additional safety instructions and are informed of how they will be transported around the park during the day. Virtually every pool, fountain, and flower garden serves both as a visual attraction and a means to direct visitors away from, or toward, particular locations. Such order is presented as being in the visitors' best interests; thus it is consensual—with the visitors' willing cooperation.33
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