• Center for Problem oriented policing

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Additional Resources

Czajkowski, Michele (2005). Transportation Options at Bar Closing Time: Female Bar Patrons and Risk for Sexual Assault in Anchorage, Alaska. Capstone project. University of Alaska Anchorage. 

Hauritz, Marg, Ross Homel, Gillian McIlwain, Tamara Burrows and Michael Townsley (1998). Reducing violence in licensed venues: community safety action projects. Trends and Issues, No. 101. Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Marsh, Peter (2002). Counting the cost: The measurement and recording of alcohol-related violence and disorder.PDF London: The Portman Group.

MCM Research (1990). Conflict and violence in pubs. Oxford, UK: MCM Research Ltd.

St. John-Brooks, Katharine and Kate Winstanley (1998). Keeping the Peace: A guide to the prevention of alcohol-related disorder. London: The Portman Group.

These sources discuss a variety of initiatives related to alcohol licensing and public disorder, including those to control the availability of alcohol, regulate consumption, enforce existing law, and improve the environments where alcohol is consumed.

Reid-Howie Associates, ( 2003). Liquor Licensing and Public Disorder: Review of Literature on the Impact of Licensing and Other Controls/Audits of Local Initiatives, Research Findings, No. 68.

Scottish Executive (2003). Liquor Licensing and Public Disorder: Review of Literature on the Impact of Licensing and Other Controls/Audits of Local Initiatives.

Abstracts of publications that have appeared since this guide was written

A monograph for police and policy makers. Doherty, S.J., and A.M. Roche (2003). Payneham, South Australia: Australasian Centre for Policing Research.

This monograph identifies best practice strategies to reduce alcohol-related harms in and around licensed premises. Specifically, it highlights the best practice in international policing to reduce alcohol-related harms associated with licensed premises; identifies innovative practices that aim to reduce alcohol-related harms associated with licensed premises located in rural and remote areas and with a high proportion of indigenous inhabitants; identifies environmental features and serving practices of licensed premises that are associated with low levels of alcohol-related harm, and the methods that police can use to encourage adoption of these; identifies particularly useful legislative tools that are in operation internationally; summarizes policy, operational and project-based documentation from police services concerning their responses to policing licensed premises; and identifies gaps that exist in the knowledge base on this issues and makes recommendations on how these gaps should be addressed. The monograph was developed through a review of the international literature on policing and licensing issues regarded alcohol-related harms in and around licensed premises, assessment of key documents to identify the legislative and organizational frameworks within which the policing of licenses premises occurs in Australia, and consultation with key stakeholders in all Australian jurisdictions. Chapters discuss alcohol use and misuse in Australia; licensed premises, alcohol-related harms and policing; the physical and regulatory issues related to licensed drinking environments; policing licensed drinking environments; problem-solving and intelligence; collaborative strategies; and recommendations for future practice in Australian policing.

Overall, the high prevalence of drinking in Australia is associated with significant individual and social harms. many of these harms place substantial demands on the human and physical resources of police agencies. Yet, in comparison to these demands and their costs, they have received relatively little attention. As a consequence, police agencies have had only a limited impact on alcohol-related crime, disorder and harm reduction especially in relation to licensed premises. Achieving best practice in the policing of licensed premises, therefore, requires a multi-faceted response to this complex area of police work.

The role of the bar context and social behaviors on women's risk for aggression. Buddie, A.M., and K.A. Parks (2003). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(12): 1378-1393.

This study examines the extent to which the environmental characteristics of bars and social behaviors that women engage in when drinking in this setting are associated with bar-related aggression. The present analysis was part of a larger study of women bar drinkers (Parks & Zetes-Zanatta, 1999). Data consisted of the survey and interview responses of 198 women, between the ages of 18 and 55, who frequented bars one or more times each month during the preceding year. Overall, certain environmental characteristics of bars and specific social behaviors that a woman engaged in at her usual bar were associated with experiencing more severe bar-related aggression. Women experienced more severe aggression when they frequented bars containing younger rather than older patrons. Younger individuals are more likely than older individuals to lack the self-control necessary to avoid becoming involved in aggressive situations, and more likely to engage in violence and aggression in general. Further, both competitive activity (pool playing) and illegal activities (drug sales, prostitution) in a bar were associated with experiencing severe physical aggression. Specific social behaviors were also associated with bar-related aggression, including heavy drinking, going to and leaving the bar with less well-known individuals, and talking to more individuals while in the bar context. Whereas it cannot be inferred from these results that women are to blame for their victimization, women's knowledge regarding the risk factors for experiencing bar-related aggression will aid in future education and prevention efforts.

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