Situational Crime Prevention Evaluation Database

This is a collection of articles reporting evaluations of situational crime prevention initiatives. The collection is intended to facilitate research and assist practitioners in finding studies relevant to their current needs. It includes a complete bibliographical listing of studies with links to full text versions (where available).

Title Citation Results
Launceston – Lighting for Crime Prevention Abernethy, I. (2002). Launceston – Lighting for Crime Prevention. Launceston, Australia: Launceston City Council Case study 1) 42% decrease in calls for service; 2) low fear of crime; 3) 85% decrease in commercial burglary, but 127% increase in vandalism; 4) low fear of crime; 5) inconclusive
Residential Security: Containment and Displacement of Burglary Allatt, P. (1984). “Residential Security: Containment and Displacement of Burglary.” Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 23(2):99-116 Target area burglary was contained rising only 9% while control estate increased 77%; Displacement- 9% and 21% displacement increase in comparison areas. Crimes prevented greater than level of displacement
Cars and Robbers: Has Car Theft Crime Prevention Worked Too Well? Altbeker, A. (2006). Cars and Robbers: Has Car Theft Crime Prevention Worked Too Well? Institute of Security Studies; Paper No. 124. Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies Vehical thefts declined, robbery rates increased. Inverse correlation found between two
An Evaluation of Secured by Design Housing Within West Yorkshire Armitage, R. (2000). “An Evaluation of Secured by Design Housing Within West Yorkshire.” Briefing Note 7/00. London: Home Office, Policing and Reducing Crime Unit 26% fewer overall crime rate in Target area; Twice number of burglary offenses in Comparison areas compared to Target; 42% fewer vehicle crimes in Target area;
Surveillance of Public Space, CCTV, Street Lighting and Crime Prevention Armitage, R., G. Smyth and K. Pease (1999). “Burnley CCTV Evaluation.” In K. Painter and N. Tilley (eds.). Surveillance of Public Space, CCTV, Street Lighting and Crime Prevention. Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 10. Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press Target area - 28% decrease; Displacement area - 1% decrease; Comparison area - 9% increase
Second-Year Evaluation Report for Cabrini-Green High Impact Program Arthur Young & Co. (1978). Second-Year Evaluation Report for Cabrini-Green High Impact Program. Chicago: Arthur Young & Co Crime decreased in treatment estate 29 percent a rate greater than comparison estate and Chicago overall. Four buildings where situational interventions were implemented experienced a 50 percent decrease in index crimes and a 38 percent decrease in non-index offenses.
The Influence of Street Lighting on Crime and Fear of Crime Atkins, S., S. Husain and A. Storey (1991). The Influence of Street Lighting on Crime and Fear of Crime. Crime Prevention Unit; Paper 28. London: Home Office, Crime Prevention Unit Target area 2.7% decrease in night time crimes (not sig. w/ Chi-sq.); Five zones found sig. change but conflicting findings three zones decreased while two increased; Surveys showed reduced fear
Street Light Project: Final Evaluation Report Atlanta (Ga.) Regional Commission (1974). Street Light Project: Final Evaluation Report. Atlanta, Ga.: The Commission Target crimes continued to increase post intervention; though the rate of increase for burglaries did slow.
The Impact of Street Closures and Barricades: A Florida Case Study Atlas, R., and W. LeBlanc (1994). “The Impact of Street Closures and Barricades: A Florida Case Study.” Security Journal 5(3):140-145 Burglary, Larceny & assault decreased in target area, while increases occurred in comparison area
Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack Ayres, I., and S. Levitt (1998). “Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 113(1):43-77 17.4% decrease (for all 6 cities aggregated) in auto theft rate per capita in 4 year period after introduction
Electronic Article Surveillance: Management Learning in Curbing Theft Bamfield, J. (1994). “Electronic Article Surveillance: Management Learning in Curbing Theft.” In M. Gill (ed.), Crime at Work: Studies in Security and Crime Prevention. Leicester, U.K.: Perpetuity Press Weighted average decrease of 28.3% in target stores; 3.6% increase in control store
Preventing Auto Theft in Commuter Parking Lots: A Bike Patrol in Vancouver Barclay, P., J. Buckley, P.J. Brantingham, P.L. Brantingham and T. Whinn-Yates (1997). “Preventing Auto Theft in Commuter Parking Lots: A Bike Patrol in Vancouver.” In R.V. Clarke (ed.), Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. 2nd ed. Guilderland, N.Y.: Harrow and Heston Target: 82% decrease; versus only 45% and 53% decrease in comparison areas
Preventing Vandalism: What Works? Barker, M., and C. Bridgeman (1994). Preventing Vandalism: What Works? Crime Detection and Prevention Series; Paper 56. London: Home Office, Police Research Group Case study 1) 30% decrease in graffiti but nearby broken windows doubled; 2) 46% drop in cleaning costs; drop to 0 graffiti cases in followup period; 3) cash compartment attacks reduced 50%; 4) inconclusive-only one school showed decline in vandalism.
Toward a Brighter Monsall: Street Lighting as a Factor in Community Safety: The Manchester Experience Barr, R., and H. Lawes (1991). Toward a Brighter Monsall: Street Lighting as a Factor in Community Safety: The Manchester Experience. Manchester, U.K.: ESRC Urban Research and Policy Evaluation-Regional Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Manchester Post increased lighting on estate pedestrian traffic increased; fear of crime remained unchanged; and burglaries decreased.
An Evaluation of the Effect of Offender-Oriented Publicity on Auto Crimes Barthe, E. (2003). An Evaluation of the Effect of Offender-Oriented Publicity on Auto Crimes. Dissertation, Rutgers University. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International While rates of car theft went down during the intervention in all three treatment areas; the was no significant decrease in the post period for any of the treatment areas.
Context-Specific Measures of CCTV Effectiveness in the Retail Sector Beck, A., and A. Willis (1999). “Context-Specific Measures of CCTV Effectiveness in the Retail Sector.” In K. Painter and N. Tilley (eds.) Surveillance of Public Space: CCTV, Street Lighting and Crime Prevention. Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 10. Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press Low level CCTV stores had 27% decline in shrinkage; Midlevel CCTV stores 18%; Highlevel CCTV stores had increase in shrinkage
Evaluation of the Richmond Project: A Crime Prevention Project Conducted by East Precinct and the S.E. Uplift Crime Prevention Program Beedle, S. (1984). Evaluation of the Richmond Project: A Crime Prevention Project Conducted by East Precinct and the S.E. Uplift Crime Prevention Program. Portland, Ore.: Portland Police Bureau Those households which fully complied with the survey recommendations experienced a lower burglary rate per 100 households than the households which had not complied (1.1 burglaries/100 households versus 2.8 burglaries/100 households) when all 180 households were considered. However, overall rates of burglary decreased slightly (4%), a rate similar to comparison areas.
Evaluation of the Home Security Program Beedle, S., and J. Stangier (1980). Evaluation of the Home Security Program. Portland, Ore.: Portland Police Bureau Program achieved a 70% reduction in burglary from pre to post periods. Fear of crime was reduced and participants were overwhelming pleased with the project, thereby improving citizens' perceptions of the police.
An Assessment of the Design, Implementation and Effectiveness of Neighbourhood Watch in London Bennett, T. (1988). “An Assessment of the Design, Implementation and Effectiveness of Neighbourhood Watch in London.” Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 24(4):241-255 Overall, the prevalence of crime (the number of households victimised at least once) did not change significantly over the experimental period in one area and increased in the other and the incidence of crime (the total number of victimisations) increased in both areas. However, some areas did report improved feelings of safety (e.g. less fear of crime).
Preventing Residential Burglary in Cambridge: From Crime Audits to Targeted Strategies Bennett, T., and L. Durie (1999). Preventing Residential Burglary in Cambridge: From Crime Audits to Targeted Strategies. Police Research Series; Paper 108. London: Home Office, Policing and Reducing Crime Unit, Research, Development and Statistics Directorate Burglary decreased in target areas but also decreased as much or more in overall jurisdiction/comparison areas; Limited scope (dosage) of intervention cited.
Evaluation of Merchant Security Program: A Case Study Assessing the Impact of Electronic Protection Devices on Safety in Retail Stores in New York City Berkowitz, M. (1975). Evaluation of Merchant Security Program: A Case Study Assessing the Impact of Electronic Protection Devices on Safety in Retail Stores in New York City. New York: New York City Police Department There was no significant reduction in robberies, however, treatment merchants reported improved perceptions of safety and that they were in fact contributing to crime reductions.
Eliminating Pay Phone Toll Fraud at the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Manhattan Bichler, G., and R.V. Clarke (1996). “Eliminating Pay Phone Toll Fraud at the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Manhattan.” In R.V. Clarke (ed.), Preventing Mass Transit Crime. Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 6. Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press Gross toll revenues and thus toll frauds dropped from 11 million dollars in '90 to 2 million dollars in '94
The Celebration of Midsummer Eve in Sweden: A Study in the Art of Preventing Collective Disorder Bjor, J., J. Knutsson and E. Kuhlhorn (1992). “The Celebration of Midsummer Eve in Sweden: A Study in the Art of Preventing Collective Disorder.” Security Journal 3(3):169-174 Number of arrests increased but perceptions of the situation is that it has improved
Single-Family Home Construction Site Theft: A Crime Prevention Case Study Boba, R., and R. Santos (2007). “Single-Family Home Construction Site Theft: A Crime Prevention Case Study.” International Journal of Construction Education and Research 3(3):217-236 Across four builders construction areas, an abrupt, continuous drop in construction site burglaries was observed post implementation of the intervention.
Evaluation of the 'Secured By Design' Initiative: Pilot Study Roger Bone & Associates (1994). Evaluation of the 'Secured By Design' Initiative: Pilot Study. London: Roger Bone & Associates In the sample areas examined the statistical tests undertaken for burglary incidence alone did not show a statistically significant difference, but those for all crimes considered, i.e. domestic burglary, theft of cars and theft from cars. did.
Small Business Crime: The Evaluation of a Crime Prevention Initiative Bowers, K. (2001). “Small Business Crime: The Evaluation of a Crime Prevention Initiative.” Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal 3(1):23-42 Commercial burglary rates in treatment businesses decreased significantly with no indications of displacement.
Pushing Back the Boundaries: New Techniques for Assessing the Impact of Burglary Schemes Bowers, K., S. Johnson and A. Hirschfield (2003). Pushing Back the Boundaries: New Techniques for Assessing the Impact of Burglary Schemes. Home Office Online Report 24/03. London: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate Treatment area experienced a significant reduction in burglary. Repeat victimization decreased and examining victimization over time revealed that 13 burglaries were prevented in a one-year period across 363 properties that had been target hardened. Moreover, the risk to these properties was almost halved following target-hardening.
Closing Off Opportunities for Crime: An Evaluation of Alley-Gating Bowers, K., S. Johnson and A. Hirschfield (2004). “Closing Off Opportunities for Crime: An Evaluation of Alley-Gating.” European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 10(4):285-308 Target: 37% reduction in burglary;
Golf Links Estate – Social and Recreational Scheme for Young People Bozhurt, E. (1994). “Golf Links Estate – Social and Recreational Scheme for Young People.” In S. Osborn (ed.), Housing Safe Communities: An Evaluation of Recent Initiatives. London: Safe Neighbourhoods Unit Overall crime levels were 77% lower in 1987 than in 1983, There was also a remarkable consistency across all offence categories in terms of the size of reduction in 1987.
Problem-Oriented Policing in Violent Crime Places: A Randomized Controlled Experiment Braga, A., D. Weisburd, E. Waring, L. Mazerolle, W. Spelman and F. Gajewski (1999). “Problem-Oriented Policing in Violent Crime Places: A Randomized Controlled Experiment.” Criminology 37(3):541-580 Social disorder alleviated at 91% of target places; All crime types in target areas decreased at varying levels

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