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American Prosecutors Research Institute. 2003. A Local Prosecutor's Guide for Responding to Hate Crimes. Arlington, Virginia: American Prosecutors Research Institute.

Balboni, Jennifer M., and Jack McDevitt. 2001. "Hate Crime Reporting: Understanding Police Officer Perceptions, Department Protocol, and the Role of the Victim: Is There Such a Thing as a Love Crime?" Justice Research and Policy 3(1): 1–27.

Bell, Jeannine 2009. "Policing and Surveillance." In Hate Crimes: Responding to Hate Crime, Volume 5, ed. Barbara Perry and Frederick M. Lawrence. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishing.

Berlet, Chip. 2001. "Hate Groups, Racial Tension and Ethnoviolence in an Integrating Neighborhood, 1976-1988." Research in Political Sociology 9:117–163.

Blazak, Randy. 2001. "White Boys to Terrorist Men: Target Recruitment of Nazi Skinheads." American Behavioral Scientist 44(6): 982–1000.

Bouman, Walter. 2003. "Best Practices of a Hate/Bias Crime Investigation." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 72(3): 21–25.

Bowling, Benjamin. 1999. Violent Racism: Victimization, Policing, and Social Context. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Boyd, Elizabeth A., Richard A. Berk, and Karl M. Hammer. 1996. "Motivated by Hatred or Prejudice: Categorization of Hate-Motivated Crimes in Two Police Divisions." Law & Society Review 30(4): 819–850.

Brimicombe, Allan J., Martin P. Ralphs, Alice Sampson, and Hoi Yuen Tsui. 2001. "An Analysis of the Role of Neighbourhood Ethnic Composition in the Geographical Distribution of Racially Motivated Incidents." British Journal of Criminology 41(2): 293–308.

Bune, Karen L. 2004. "Law Enforcement Must Take Lead on Hate Crimes." The Police Chief 71(4): 41–42, 44.

Byers, Bryan D., and Benjamin W. Crider. 2002. "Hate Crimes against the Amish: A Qualitative Analysis of Bias Motivation Using Routine Activities Theory." Deviant Behavior 23(2): 115–148.

California Attorney Generals Civil Rights Commission on Hate Crimes. 2001. Reporting Hate Crimes: The California Attorney Generals Civil Rights Commission on Hate Crimes Final Report. Sacramento: Attorney Generals Civil Rights Commission on Hate Crimes.

Chakraborti, Neil. 2009. "A Glass Half Full? Assessing Progress in the Policing of Hate Crime." Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 3(2): 121–128.

Chermak, Steven M., Joshua D. Freilich, and Michael Suttmoeller. 2013. "The Organizational Dynamics of Far-right Hate Groups in the United States: Comparing Violent to Non-violent Organizations." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 36:193–218.

Cogan, Jeannine C. 2002. "Hate Crime as a Crime Category Worthy of Police Attention." American Behavioral Scientist 46(1): 173–185.

Craig, Kellina M., and Craig R. Waldo. 1996. "'So, What's a Hate Crime Anyway?' Young Adults' Perceptions of Hate Crimes, Victims, and Perpetrators. Law and Human Behavior 20(2): 113–129.

Cronin, Shea W., Jack McDevitt, Amy Farrell, and James J. Nolan III. 2007. "Bias-Crime Reporting: Organizational Responses to Ambiguity, Uncertainty, and Infrequency in Eight Police Departments." American Behavioral Scientist 51(2): 213–231.

Duffy, James E., and Alan C. Brantley. 1997. "Militias: Initiating Contact." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 66(7):22–26.

Dunbar, Edward, Jary Quinones, and Desiree A. Crevecoeur. 2005. "Assessment of Hate Crime Offenders: The Role of Bias Intent in Examining Violence Risk." Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice 5(1): 1–19.

Ezekiel, Raphael S. 1995. The Racist Mind: Portraits of American Neo-Nazis and Klansmen. New York: Viking Press.

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). 2012. Hate Crime Statistics 2011. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Department of Justice; FBI, Criminal Justice Information Services Division. www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/hate-crime/2011/hate-crime.

Franklin, Karen. 2002. "Good Intentions: The Enforcement of Hate Crime Penalty-Enhancement Statutes." American Behavioral Scientist 46(1): 154–172.

Freilich, Joshua D., and Steven M. Chermak. 2009. "Preventing Deadly Encounters Between Law Enforcement and American Far-rightists." In Reducing Terrorism Through Situational Crime Prevention. Crime Prevention Studies, Volume 25. Monsey, New York: Criminal Justice Press: 141–172.

Freilich, Joshua D., Steven M. Chermak, Roberta Belli, Jeffrey Gruenewald, and William S. Parkin. Forthcoming. "Introducing the United States Extremist Crime Database (ECDB)." Terrorism and Political Violence.

Garofalo, James, and Susan E. Martin. 1993. Bias-Motivated Crimes: Their Characteristics and Law Enforcement Response. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University, Center for the Study of Crime, Delinquency, and Corrections.

Gist, Nancy E. 1997. Stopping Hate Crime: A Case History From the Sacramento Police Department. Bureau of Justice Assistance Fact Sheet. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Program, Bureau of Justice Assistance.

Githens-Mazer, Jonathan, and Robert Lambert. 2010. Islamophobia and Anti-Muslim Hate Crime: A London Case Study. Exeter, U.K.: European Muslim Research Centre, University of Exeter.

Glaser, Jack, Jay Dixit, and Donald P. Green. 2002. "Studying Hate Crime with the Internet: What Makes Racists Advocate Racial Violence?" Journal of Social Issues 58(1): 177–193.

Gorton, Donald. 2011. Anti-Transgender Hate Crimes: The Challenge for Law Enforcement. Boston: The Anti-Violence Project of Massachusetts.

Grattet, Ryken. 2009. "The Urban Ecology of Bias Crime: A Study of Disorganized and Defended Neighborhoods." Social Problems 56(1): 132–150.

Grattet, Ryken, and Valerie Jenness. 2008. "Transforming Symbolic Law into Organizational Action: Hate Crime Policy and Law Enforcement Practice." Social Forces 87(1): 501–527.

Green, Donald P., Robert P. Abelson, and Margaret Garnett. 1999. "The Distinctive Political Views of Hate-crime Perpetrators and White Supremacists." In Cultural Divides: Understanding and Overcoming Group Conflict, ed. Deborah A. Prentice and Dale T. Miller. New York: Russell Sage: 429–464.

Green, Donald P., Dara Z. Strolovitch, and Janelle S. Wong. 1998. "Defended Neighborhoods, Integration, and Racially Motivated Crime." American Journal of Sociology 104(2): 372–403.

Green, Donald P., Jack Glaser, and Andrew Rich. 1998. "From Lynching to Gay-Bashing: The Elusive Connection Between Economic Conditions and Hate Crime." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75(1): 82–92.

Green, Donald P., and Andrew Rich. 1998. "White Supremacist Activity and Cross Burnings in North Carolina." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 14:263–282.

Green, Donald P., Dara Z. Strolovitch, Janelle S. Wong, and Robert W. Bailey. 2001. "Measuring Gay Population Density and the Incidence of Anti-Gay Hate Crime." Social Science Quarterly 82(2): 281–297.

Gruenewald, Jeff. 2011. "A Comparative Examination of Homicides Perpetrated by Far-Right Extremists." Homicide Studies 15(2): 177–203.

Haas, Stephen M., James J. Nolan, Erica Turley, and Jake Stump. 2011. Assessing the Validity of Hate Crime Reporting: An Analysis of NIBRS Data. Charleston, West Virginia: West Virginia Division of Justice and Community Services, Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center.

Haider-Markel, Donald P. 2001. "Implementing Controversial Policy: Results from a National Survey of Law Enforcement Department Activity on Hate Crime." Justice Research and Policy 3(1): 29–62.

Hall, Nathan. 2005. Hate Crime. Devon, U.K. and Portland, Oregon: Willan Publishing.

Hamm, Mark S. 1993. American Skinheads: The Criminology and Control of Hate Crime. New York: Praeger Press.

Harlow, Caroline Wolf. 2005. Hate Crime Reported by Victims and Police. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Heitmeyer, Wilhelm. 2003. "Right-Wing Extremist Violence." In International Handbook of Violence Research, ed. W. Heitmeyer and J. Hagan. Boston: Kluwer Academic: 399–436.

Hounslow (U.K.) Community Safety Partnership. 2007. "I-Kiosk Third Party Reporting for Homophobic Crime." Submission for the Tilley Award.

Iganski, Paul. 2007. "Too Few Jews to Count? Police Monitoring of Hate Crime Against Jews in the United Kingdom." American Behavioral Scientist 51(2): 232–245.

International Association of Chiefs of Police. 2001. Responding to Hate Crime: A Police Officer's Guide to Investigation and Prevention. Arlington, Virginia: The IACP.

Jenness, Valerie, and Ryken Grattet. 2005. "The Law-in-Between: The Effects of Organizational Perviousness on the Policing of Hate Crime." Social Problems 52(3): 337–359.

Johnson, Leslie. 2009. Miami-Dade Police Department and the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990. Miami: Leslie Johnson.

Kercher, Glen, Claire Nolasco, and Ling Wu. 2008. Hate Crimes. Huntsville, Texas: Crime Victims' Institute, Criminal Justice Center, Sam Houston State University.

Kielinger, Vicky, and Susan Paterson. 2007. "Policing Hate Crime in London." American Behavioral Scientist 51(2): 196–204.

King, Ryan D. 2007. "The Context of Minority Group Threat: Institutions, and Complying with Hate Crime Law." Law & Society Review 41(1): 189–224.

Krouse, William J. 2010. Hate Crime Legislation. CRS Report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service.

Lancashire (U.K.) Constabulary. 2005. "Return of the Happy Shopper." Submission for the Tilley Award.

Lancashire (U.K.) Constabulary. 2002. "Chorley Mosque." Submission for the Tilley Award.

Lane, Frank. J., L inda R. Shaw, and M artin Kim. 2009. "Hate Crimes Committed Against Persons with Disabilities." In Hate Crimes: The Victims of Hate Crime, Vol. 3, ed. Barbara Perry. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishing.

Langton, Lynn, and Michael Planty. 2011. "Hate Crime, 2003-2009." Special Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education Fund. 2009. Confronting the New Faces of Hate: Hate Crimes in America. Washington, D.C.: LCCR Education Fund.

Levin, Brian, and Sara-Ellen Amster. 2007. Make Hate History: Hate Crime and Policing in Americas Most Diverse City. American Behavioral Scientist 51(2): 319–348.

Levin, Jack, and Jack McDevitt. 1993. Hate Crimes: The Rising Tide of Bigotry and Bloodshed. New York: Plenum.

Levin, Jack, and Jack McDevitt. 2002. Hate Crimes Revisited—America's War on Those Who Are Different. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Lyons, Christopher J. 2007. "Community (Dis)Organization and Racially Motivated Crimes." American Journal of Sociology 113(3): 815–863.

Messner, Steven F., Suzanne McHugh, and Richard B. Felson. 2004. "The Distinctive Characteristics of Assaults Motivated by Bias." Criminology 42(3): 585–618.

McDevitt, Jack, Jennifer Balboni, Luis Garcia, and Joann Gu. 2001. "Consequences for Victims: A Comparison of Bias- and Non-Bias-Motivated Assaults." American Behavioral Scientist 45(4): 697–713.

Newman, Graeme R., and Ronald V. Clarke. 2008. Policing Terrorism: An Executive's Guide. Washington, D.C.: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice.

Perry, Barbara. 2009. "Anti-Muslim Violence in the Post-9/11 Era: Motive Forces." In Hate Crimes: Hate Crime Offenders Vol. 4, eds. Barbara Perry and Randy Blazak. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishing.

Phillips, Nickie D. 2009. "The Prosecution of Hate Crimes: The Limitations of the Hate Crime Typology." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 24(5): 883–905.

Sampson, Robert J., and W. Byron Groves. 1989. "Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social Disorganization Theory." American Journal of Sociology 94(4): 774–802.

Walker, Samuel, and Charles M. Katz. 1995. "Less Than Meets the Eye: Police Department Bias-Crime Units." American Journal of Police 14:29–48.

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