POP Center Home Problems Trafficked Women 2nd Ed. Endnotes

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[1] Tiefenbrun (2002:136); UNODC (2018).

[2] U.S. Department of State (2005); TVPA, (2000); TVPA (2017).

[3] Bales and Fletcher (2004); Bales (2012); Polaris (2017).

[4] International Labour Office (2003); Polaris (2017).

[5] TVPA (2000); TVPA (2017).

[6] Salt (2000); Laczko and Gramegna (2003); Polaris (2017).

[7] U.S. Department of State (2019).

[8] Kangaspunta (2003); U.S. Department of State (2019).

[9] Tiefenbrun (2002:139-141); U.S. Department of State (2019).

[10] U.S. Department of Justice (2004).

[11] MacPherson and Gushulak (2004); Polaris (2017).

[12] Gushulak and MacPherson (2000); Polaris (2017).

[13] Gushulak and MacPherson (2000); Polaris (2017).

[14] Gumbel (2001); Bales et al. (2004); Polaris (2017).

[15] Walter (2002); Polaris (2017).

[16] Stuart Police Department (2001); Polaris (2017).

[17] National City Police Department (2000); Polaris (2017).

[18] Ryf (2002:50); U.S. Department of State (2019).

[19] Human Rights Watch (2001).

[20] Guerette (2004); Belsar (2005).

[21]Cwikel et al. (2004); Weitzer (2015).

[22] Stone (2004).

[23] Raymond and Hughes (2001); Marcellin (2019).

[24] FloridaStateUniversity (2003); UNODC (2018).

[25] Hughes (2001); Latonero (2011).

[26] Parrado et al. (2004); UDNOC (2018).

[27] Raymond and Hughes (2001); UNODC (2018).

[28] United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) (2003); Weitzer (2015).

[29] TVPA (2000).

[30] 8 U.S.C. sec. 1227(a)(1)(E)(i).

[31] U.S. Department of State (2004); Wheaton, Schauer and Galli (2010).

[32] Anderson and O’Connell Davidson (2003); Weitzer (2015).

[33] Raymond and Hughes (2001); Hughes (2004a); Weitzer (2015).

[34] Wijers and Lap-Chew (1999); Zarembka (2000); Anderson and O’Connell Davidson (2003); Weitzer (2015).

[35] Human Rights Watch (2001); Anderson and O’Connell Davidson (2003); Weitzer (2015).

[36] Bales et al. (2004); Weitzer (2015).

[37] Scott (2000); Shively et al. (2012).

[38] Hughes (2004a); Weitzer (2015).

[39] See generally Freilich and Newman (2005); U.S. Department of State (2019).

[40] Seghetti et al. (2004); U.S. Department of State (2019).

[41] Nordic Institute for Women’s Studies and Gender Research (2002).

[42] Raymond and Hughes (2001); Ryf (2002: 20); Shively et al. (2012).

[43] Salt (2000); Shively et al. (2012).

[44] Kansas City, Missouri Police Department (2004); Shively et al. (2012).

[45] Mackenzie et al. (2003).

[46] Raymond and Hughes (2001); Shively et al. (2012).

[47] Hughes (2004a); Shively et al. (2012).

[48] Torrey and Dubin (2003); International Labor Organization (2017).

[49] Hughes (2003); International Labor Organization (2017).

[50] National Trafficking Alert System (n.d.); Shively et al. (2012).

[51] Venkatraman (2003); The Police Chief (2014).

[52] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Human Trafficking Hotline (n.d.).

[53] Jacobsen (2002); TVPA (2017).

[54] Edwards (2003); Farrell, Bright, de Vries, Pfeffer and Dank (2019).

[55] SPOG (2005).; U.S. Department of State (2019).

[56] King (2003); Dill (2011).

[57] Ekberg (2004).

[58] Persons (1996); Shively et al. (2012).

[59] Hughes (2004a); Shively et al. (2012).

[60] Hughes (2004a); Shively et al. (2012).

[61] Hughes (2004a:27); Shively et al. (2012).

[62] Hughes (2004a).

[63] Hesseling (1994); U.S. Department of Justice (2019).

[64] Weidner (1999); Wolf (2001); Farrell and Cronin (2015).

[65] Raymond (2004); Shively et al. (2012); Cho, Dreher & Neumayer (2012).

[66] Hughes (2004a); Ekberg (2004); Nordic Institute for Women’s Studies and Gender Research (2002); Shively et al. (2012); Cho, Dreher & Neumayer (2012).

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