• Center for Problem oriented policing

POP Center Tools Understanding and Responding to Crime & Disorder Hot Spots References

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Andresen, Martin A., Shannon J. Linning, and Nick Malleson. 2017. “Crime at Places and Spatial Concentrations: Exploring the Spatial Stability of Property Crime in Vancouver, BC 2003–2013.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 33(2), 255–275.

Andresen, Martin A., and Nick Malleson. 2011. “Testing the Stability of Crime Patterns: Implications for Theory and Policy.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(1): 58–82.

Ariel, Barack, Cristobal Weinborn, and Adrian Boyle. 2015. “Can Routinely Collected Ambulance Data About Assaults Contribute to Reduction in Community Violence?” Emergency Medical Journal, 32(4): 308–313.

Bichler, Gisela, Karin Schmerler, and Janet Enriquez. 2013. “Curbing Nuisance Motels: An Evaluation of Police as Place Regulators.” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 36(2): 437–462.

Bowers, Kate, Shane Johnson, Rob T. Guerette, Lucia Summers, and Suzanne Poynton. 2011. “Spatial Displacement and Diffusion of Benefits among Geographically Focused Policing Interventions.” Campbell Systematic Reviews, 7(3).

Braga, Anthony A., and Brenda J. Bond. 2008. “Policing Crime and Disorder Hot Spots: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.” Criminology, 46(3): 577–607.

Braga, Anthony A., and David Weisburd. 2006. “Problem-Oriented Policing: The Disconnect Between Principles and Practice.” In David Weisburd and Anthony A. Braga (Eds.), Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives (pp. 133–152). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Braga, Anthony A., and David L. Weisburd. 2010. Policing Problem Places: Crime Hot Spots and Effective Prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.

Braga, Anthony A., Andrew V. Papachristos, and David M. Hureau. 2010. “The Concentration and Stability of Gun Violence at Micro Places in Boston, 1980–2008.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 26(1): 33–53.

Braga, Anthony A., David M. Hureau, and Andrew V. Papachristos. 2011. “An Ex Post Facto Evaluation Framework for Place-based Police Interventions.” Evaluation Review, 35(6): 592–626.

Braga, Anthony A., Edward F. Davis, and Michael D. White. 2012. Boston, Massachusetts Smart Policing Initiative: Evaluating a Place-Based Intervention to Reduce Violent Crime. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice.

Braga, Anthony A., Andrew V. Papachristos, and David M. Hureau. 2012. “Hot Spots Policing Effects on Crime.” Campbell Systematic Reviews, 8(8). 

Braga, Anthony A., Daniel W. Webster, Michael D. White, and Hildy Saizow. 2014. SMART Approaches to Reducing Gun Violence. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice. 

Braga, Anthony A., David L. Weisburd, Elin J. Waring, Lorraine G. Mazerolle, William Spelman, and Frank Gajewski. 1999. “Problem-Oriented Policing in Violent Crime Places: A Randomized Controlled Experiment.” Criminology, 37(3): 541–580.

Bursik, Robert J., Jr., and Harold G. Grasmick. 1993. Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control. New York: Lexington Books.

Clarke, Ronald V. 1995. “Situational Crime Prevention.” In Michael Tonry and David Farrington (eds.), Building a Safer Society: Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, vol. 19, (pp. 91–150). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Clarke, Ronald V., and David L. Weisburd. 1994. “Diffusion of Crime Control Benefits: Observations on the Reverse of Displacement.” In Ronald V. Clarke (ed.), Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 2 (pp. 165–184). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

Cohen, Lawrence E., and Marcus Felson. 1979. “Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach.” American Sociological Review, 44(4): 588–608.

Cornish, Derek B., and Ronald V. Clarke (eds.). 1986. The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Crime Mapping Research Center. 2016. Mapping Crime: Principle and Practice, National Institute of Justice. Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/nij/mapping/index.html.

Di Tella, Rafael, and Ernesto Schargrodsky. 2004. “Do Police Reduce Crime? Estimates Using Allocations of Police Forces after a Terrorist Attack.” American Economic Review, 94(1): 115–133.

Eck, John E., and Julie Wartell. 1998. “Improving the Management of Rental Properties with Drug Problems: A Randomized Experiment.” In Lorraine G. Mazerolle and Jan Roehl (Eds.), Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 9 (pp. 161–185). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

Eck, John E., Spencer Chainey, James G. Cameron, Michael Leitner, and Ronald E. Wilson. 2005. Mapping Crime: Understanding Hotspots. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Goldstein, Herman. 1979. “Improving Policing: A Problem-Oriented Approach.” Crime & Delinquency, 25(2): 236–258.

Goldstein, Herman. 1990. Problem-Oriented Policing. New York: McGraw Hill.

Groff, Elizabeth R., Jerry H. Ratcliffe, Cory P. Haberman, Evan T. Sorg, Nola M. Joyce, and Ralph B. Taylor. 2015. “Does What Police Do at Hot Spots Matter? The Philadelphia Policing Tactics Experiment.” Criminology, 53(1): 23–53.

Groff, Elizabeth R., David Weisburd, and Sue-Ming Yang. 2010. “Is It Important to Examine Crime Trends at a Local “Micro” Level?: A Longitudinal Analysis of Street to Street Variability in Crime Trajectories.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 26(7): 7–32.

Hegarty, Tim, L. Sue Williams, Shaun Stanton, and William Chernoff. 2014. “Evidence-based Policing at Work in Smaller Jurisdictions.” Translational Criminology, 6, Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy.

Hibdon, Julie, and Elizabeth R. Groff. 2014. “What You Find Depends on Where You Look: Using Emergency Medical Services Call Data to Target Illicit Drug Use Hot Spots.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 30(2): 169–185.

Kochel, Tammy R. 2011. “Constructing Hot Spots Policing: Unexamined Consequences for Disadvantaged Populations and for Police Legitimacy.” Criminal Justice Policy Review, 22(3): 350–374.

Kochel, Tammy R., George Burruss, and David Weisburd. 2015. St. Louis County Hot Spots in Residential Areas (SCHIRA) Final Report: Assessing the Effects of Hot Spots Policing Strategies on Police Legitimacy, Crime, and Collective Efficacy. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. 

Koper, Christopher S. 1995. “Just Enough Police Presence: Reducing Crime and Disorderly Behavior by Optimizing Patrol Time in Crime Hot Spots.” Justice Quarterly, 12(4): 649–672.

Koper, Christopher S., Bruce G. Taylor, and Daniel Woods. 2013. “A Randomized Test of Initial and Residual Deterrence from Directed Patrols and Use of License Plate Readers at Crime Hot Spots.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9(2): 213–244.

Lawton, Brian A., Ralph B. Taylor, and Anthony J. Luongo. 2005. “Police Officers on Drug Corners in Philadelphia, Drug Crime, and Violent Crime: Intended, Diffusion, and Displacement Impacts.” Justice Quarterly, 22(4): 427–451.

Lum, Cynthia, Christopher S. Koper, and Cody W. Telep. 2011. “The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(1): 3–26.

Lum, Cynthia, Julie B. Hibdon, Breanne Cave, Christopher S. Koper, and Linda Merola. 2011. “License Plate Reader (LPR) Police Patrols in Crime Hot Spots: An Experimental Evaluation in Two Adjacent Jurisdictions.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(4): 321–345.

Main, Frank, “On the West Side, Maps Show Heroin ODs, Shootings Go Hand in Hand,” Chicago Sun-Times, March 24, 2017. Accessed at https://chicago.suntimes.com/2017/3/24/18413604/on-the-west-side-maps-show-heroin-ods-shootings-go-hand-in-hand on December 6, 2018.

Matthies, Carl, and Tina Chiu. 2014. Putting a Value on Crime Analysts: Considerations for Law Enforcement Executives. New York: Vera Institute of Justice. http://www.vera.org/sites/default/files/resources/downloads/putting-valu....

Mazerolle, Lorraine G., James F. Price, and Jan Roehl. 2000. “Civil Remedies and Drug Control: A Randomized Field Trial in Oakland, California.” Evaluation Review, 24(2): 212–241.

Mitchell, Renee J. 2013. “Hot-Spot Randomized Control Works for Sacramento.” Research in Brief. The Police Chief, 80(2): 12.

Nagin, Daniel S., Robert M. Solow, and Cynthia Lum. 2015. “Deterrence, Criminal Activities, and Police.” Criminology, 53(1): 74–100.

National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Committee to Review Research on Police Policy and Practices. Wesley Skogan and Kathleen Frydl (Eds.). Committee on Law and Justice, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Oberwittler, Dietrich, and Per-Olof H. Wikström. 2009. “Why Small is Better: Advancing the Study of the Role of Behavioral Contexts in Crime Causation.” In David Weisburd, Wim Bernasco and Gerben J.N. Bruinsma (Eds.). Putting Crime in Its Place: Units of Analysis in Geographic Criminology (pp. 35–60). New York: Springer.

Perry, Walter L., Brian McInnis, Carter C. Price, Susan C. Smith, and John S. Hollywood. 2013. Predictive Policing: The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation.

Piza, Eric L., and Brian A. O’Hara. 2014. “Saturation Foot-Patrol in a High-Violence Area: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation.” Justice Quarterly, 31(4): 693–718.

President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. 2015. Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice.

Ratcliffe, Jerry H. 2004. “Geocoding Crime and a First Estimate of Minimum Acceptable Hit Rate.” International Journal of Geographic Information Science, 18(1): 61–72.

Ratcliffe, Jerry H., Travis Taniguchi, Elizabeth R. Groff, and Jennifer D. Wood. 2011. “The Philadelphia Foot Patrol Experiment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Police Patrol Effectiveness in Violent Crime Hotspots.” Criminology, 49(3): 795–831.

Ratcliffe, Jerry H., Elizabeth R. Groff, Evan T. Sorg, and Cory P. Haberman. 2015. “Citizens’ Reactions to Hot Spots Policing: Impacts on Perceptions of Crime, Disorder, Safety and Police.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 11(4): 393–417. 

Rosenbaum, Dennis P. 2006. “The Limits of Hot Spots Policing.” In David Weisburd and Anthony A. Braga (Eds.), Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives (pp. 245–263). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Rosenfeld, Richard, Michael J. Deckard, and Emily Blackburn. 2014. “The Effects of Directed Patrol and Self-Initiated Enforcement on Firearm Violence: A Randomized Controlled Study of Hot Spot Policing.” Criminology, 52(3): 428–449.

Sampson, Robert J., Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Felton Earls. 1997. “Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy.” Science, 277(5328): 918–924.

Santos, Rachel B. 2013. Crime Analysis with Crime Mapping. 3rd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Scott, Michael S. 2004. The Benefits and Consequences of Police Crackdowns. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police. Response Guide No 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Shaw, Clifford R., and Henry D. McKay. 1942. Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. A Study of Rates of Delinquency in Relation to Differential Characteristics of Local Communities in American Cities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sherman, Lawrence W. 1990. “Police Crackdowns: Initial and Residual Deterrence.” In Michael Tonry and Norval Morris (Eds.) Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, vol. 12. (pp. 1–48). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sherman, Lawrence W., and Dennis P. Rogan. 1995. “Deterrent Effects of Police Raids on Crack Houses: A Randomized, Controlled Experiment.” Justice Quarterly, 12(4): 755–781.

Sherman, Lawrence W., and David Weisburd. 1995. “General Deterrent Effects of Police Patrol in Crime ‘Hot Spots’: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.” Justice Quarterly, 12(4): 625–648.

Sherman, Lawrence W., Patrick R. Gartin, and Michael E. Buerger. 1989a. “Hot Spots of Predatory Crime: Routine Activities and the Criminology of Place.” Criminology, 27(1): 27–56.

Sherman, Lawrence W., Michael Buerger, and Patrick Gartin. 1989. Repeat Call Address Policing: The Minneapolis RECAP Experiment. Washington, DC: Crime Control Institute.

Sorg, Evan T., Cory P. Haberman, Jerry H. Ratcliffe, and Elizabeth R. Groff. 2013. “Foot Patrol in Violent Crime Hot Spots: The Longitudinal Impact of Deterrence and Posttreatment Effects of Displacement.” Criminology, 51(1): 65–102.

Steenbeek, Wouter, and David Weisburd. 2016. “Where the Action is in Crime? An Examination of Variability of Crime Across Different Spatial Units in The Hague, 2001-2009.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 32(3): 449–469.

Stewart, Greg, Kris Henning, and Vivian Elliott. 2015. “SPI Case Study: Portland, Oregon.” Smart Policing Initiative Quarterly Newsletter, XVI: 2–4.

Taylor, Bruce, Christopher S. Koper, and Daniel J. Woods. 2011. “A Randomized Controlled Trial of Different Policing Strategies at Hot Spots of Violent Crime.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(2): 149–181.

Telep, Cody W., and David Weisburd. 2012. “What is Known about the Effectiveness of Police Practices in Reducing Crime and Disorder?” Police Quarterly, 15(4): 331–357.

Telep, Cody W., Renee J. Mitchell, and David Weisburd. 2014. “How Much Time Should the Police Spend at Crime Hot Spots? Answers from a Police Agency Directed Randomized Field Trial in Sacramento, California.” Justice Quarterly, 31(5): 905–933.

Tyler, Tom R. 1990. Why People Obey the Law: Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and Compliance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Tyler, Tom R. 2004. “Enhancing Police Legitimacy.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 593: 84–99.

Weisburd, David. 2015. “The Law of Crime Concentration and the Criminology of Place.” Criminology, 54(1): 133–157.

Weisburd, David, and Lorraine Green. 1995. “Policing Drug Hot Spots: The Jersey City Drug Market Analysis Experiment.” Justice Quarterly, 12(4): 711–736.

Weisburd, David, and Cody W. Telep. 2010. “The Efficiency of Place-Based Policing.” In Eveline De Wree, Elke Devroe, Wim Broer, and Peter Van der Laan (eds.), Evidence Based Policing. Cahiers Politiestudies, no. 17, (pp. 247–262). Antwerp, Belgium: Maklu Publishers.

Weisburd, David, Elizabeth R. Groff, and Sue-Ming Yang. 2012. The Criminology of Place: Street Segments and our Understanding of the Crime Problem. New York: Oxford University Press.

Weisburd, David, Cody W. Telep, and Brian A. Lawton. 2014. “Could Innovations in Policing Have Contributed to the New York City Crime Drop Even in a Period of Declining Police Strength?: The Case of Stop, Question and Frisk as a Hot Spots Policing Strategy.” Justice Quarterly, 31(1): 129–154.

Weisburd, David, Michael Davis, and Charlotte Gill. 2015. “Increasing Collective Efficacy and Social Capital at Crime Hot Spots: New Crime Control Tools for Police.” Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 9(3): 265–274.

Weisburd, David, Joshua C. Hinkle, Christine Famega, and Justin Ready. 2011. “The Possible ‘Backfire’ Effects of Hot Spots Policing: An Experimental Assessment of Impacts on Legitimacy, Fear and Collective Efficacy.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(4): 297–320.

Weisburd, David L., Joshua C. Hinkle, Christine Famega, and Justin Ready. 2012. Legitimacy, Fear and Collective Efficacy in Crime Hot Spots. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

Weisburd, David, Laura A. Wyckoff, Justin Ready, John E. Eck, Joshua C. Hinkle, and Frank Gajewski. 2006. “Does Crime Just Move Around the Corner? A Controlled Study of Spatial Displacement and Diffusion of Crime Control Benefits.” Criminology, 44(3): 549–592.

Wheeler, Andrew P., Robert E. Worden, and Sarah J. McLean. 2016. “Replicating Group-Based Trajectory Models of Crime at Micro-Places in Albany, NY.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 32(4): 589–612.

White, Michael D., and Charles M. Katz. 2013. “Policing Convenience Store Crime: Lessons from the Glendale, Arizona Smart Policing Initiative.” Police Quarterly, 16(3): 305–322.

Wilson, James Q., and George L. Kelling. 1982. “Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety.” Atlantic Monthly, 211(3): 29–38.

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