Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Summary of Responses

The table below summarizes the responses to check and card fraud, the mechanism by which they are intended to work, the conditions under which they ought to work best, and some factors you should consider before implementing a particular response. It is critical that you tailor responses to local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on reliable analysis. In most cases, an effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses. Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem.

Working With Businesses
#ResponseHow It WorksWorks Best If...Considerations
1Raising responsibility awareness Local businesses and card issuers are encouraged to take more responsibility for preventing fraudpolice emphasize the community costs of fraud to merchantsMany security, card-issuing, and verification policies are dictated by national and international card issuers, bankers, and retail chains, making it difficult to change local practices
2Increasing the reporting of fraud Data collection allows police to determine the extent of the problem in their areait is combined with a preventive program (see response #3)The media may portray increased reporting of incidents as a "crime wave" demanding a police crackdown, rather then an aid to planned preventive procedures
3Verifying checks, cards, and users Retailers with high check or card fraud losses are targeted, and verification procedures are establishedverification procedures are integrated into the established checkout practices, and an evaluation demonstrates cost- effectivenessMerchants may resist spending money on verification, especially if it requires investing in new technology and changing checkout procedures
4Training checkout staff Regular staff training raises awareness about fraud preventionpolice establish a close, trusting relationship with businesses and clearly communicate goalsMerchants may distrust police attempts to participate in staff training sessions
5Reducing card application fraudVacant residences and newly occupied residences where credit card information may be sent are identifiedpolice work closely with postal employees and real estate agencies to ensure that mail is not delivered to unoccupied residences, and is forwarded to the appropriate peopleVacant residences may be in several different mail- delivery areas, requiring extensive coordination with the post office
6Using information to fight online card fraud Specified websites alert users to online fraudpolice provide prevention and enforcement information to small local businessesIt is difficult to evaluate this response's effect on online fraud, since it is primarily directed at enhancing police-business relations; generally, preventing online fraud is beyond the means of local police
7Tracking productsPolice work with delivery companies, local retailers, and Neighborhood Watch to monitor product delivery and product returnsmanufacturers, retailers, and delivery companies use new tracking technologyCost-effectiveness may be difficult to determine; tracking may work in reducing related crimes such as shoplifting and theft of items in transit
8Raising perceptions of wrongdoing and risk Retailers post warning signs at checkoutsretailers keep records of check and card fraud both before and after posting signs, to measure their effectivenessMerchants may resist this response, inexpensive though it is, for fear that it will have a negative effect on law-abiding customers
Community Partnerships
#ResponseHow It WorksWorks Best If...Considerations
9Educating cardholders Educational programs teach people to avoid victimization by taking simple precautionsit is combined with crime prevention education about a variety of crimes for which they may be targetedThis response requires considerable cooperation from community groups and schools
10Publicizing costs of fraudThe media are used to publicize the financial and human costs of fraudpolice work with businesses and the media to craft stories that emphasize crime preventionStories of victimization may affect businesses negatively; media treatment of stories and information may be unpredictable; effectiveness is probably not measurable
11Collaborating with colleges Police encourage colleges to establish responsible-use policies for computing facilities, to minimize hackingit is combined with crime prevention education about a variety of crimes for which they may be targetedEffectiveness is difficult to measure, and depends on colleges' willingness to invite local police to their campuses to help solve crime problems
#ResponseHow It WorksWorks Best If...Considerations
12Monitoring fencing outlets, pawnshops, and online auctions Police work with businesses to develop strategies to track goods that may be stolenpolice acquire extensive local and regional knowledge of known fencing and pawnshop operationsLocal businesses must cooperate in identifying and tracking goods
13Monitoring chat rooms, bulletin boards, and bogus websites Police conduct surveillance of crime-facilitating Internet venuespolice get help from ISPs and computer crime expertsIt is difficult to determine whether online fraudsters live in your area
14Targeting high- risk merchants Police determine what stores have high rates of fraud and focus their efforts on thempolice work with business associations to collect information if incident data are not availableInformation-sharing requires a long-term, trusting relationship between police and businesses
15Getting help from experts Experts on fraud provide information and skills that may help with local problemspolice network with professional security consultants and fraud squads at the local, regional, and national levelFraud squads may be investigation- rather than problem-oriented
Responses With Limited Effectiveness
#ResponseHow It WorksWorks Best If...Considerations
16Conducting crackdowns Police conduct very public, intensive campaigns to catch fraudsters Merchants may fear that crackdowns will drive business away
17Implementing business watch Businesses set up programs similar to Neighborhood Watchprograms are focused on specific crimes, rather than crime in generalBusinesses must have clear crime-prevention goals
18Handling offenders through means other than the criminal justice system Police and/or businesses issue offenders warnings, require victim compensation, and/or require counseling rather than make formal criminal reports This response has usually been used with juveniles who have committed other offenses; it has not been evaluated for check and card fraud
19Conducting publicity campaigns Police alone publicize fraud risksit is combined with the implementation of practical security measuresResearch has not shown this response, alone, to be effective