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A community experienced problems related to the activities of casual laborers, who congregated while waiting for work. Residents and business owners complained of blocked sidewalks and the harassment of pedestrians by the laborers. Laborers urinated on buildings and in parking lots and left trash on the sidewalks, streets, and gutters. A managed site was developed where laborers could secure employment in a safe and orderly environment. A "No Solicitation" ordinance was enacted requiring laborers and employers to utilize the facility. The problems associated with the day laborers decreased.
Transients and vagrants engaged in nuisance behaviors disrupting the University community, who often provided the vagrants with money to purchase alcohol which exacerbating the problems. Eleven of the vagrants were responsible for nearly 75% of the calls for service to the lower campus area. Officers increased contact with the identified vagrants building rapport, strictly enforcing legal codes, and learning the conditions and needs of the individual. Social service organizations and shelters were used to assist the transients. An education campaign of the University community as to the nature of the issue was carried out. Officers also developed relationships with prosecutors and disseminated information to other law enforcement agencies. Early results of the initiative were positive with a noticeable decrease in the calls for service concerning vagrants.
A major thoroughfare was plagued by street cruising, which was associated with drug and alcohol use and violent conflicts. Merchants complained of losing business, and neighborhood residents complained about the noise, violence, and traffic. The police were burdened with calls for service and received complaints about poor service during cruising hours. The police formed alliances with local businesses and the community. Signs, written warnings, and controlled vehicle movement were used to discourage cruising. Cruising-related criminal acts and cruiser-related calls for service have been virtually eliminated.
A police department found that police officers spent considerable amounts of time handling domestic violence calls. Calls for service showed a pattern in which violence increased over time. The police responded to over 2,500 domestic violence cases involving three or more calls for service from 1994 to 1996. A protocol was developed in which officers made follow-up visits to domestic violence calls and educated victims. All actions are documented to justify future prosecution. Repeat calls for service decreased substantially.
The police were informed of numerous methcathinone laboratories, which were confirmed with interviews. A list of possible laboratories was complied and compared to warrant and probation lists. Violators on probation had their probation revoked by petition. The media covered the arrests and reported seized cash, property, and drugs. Additionally, stolen property was recovered, burglaries were cleared, and a supplier of ephedrine, an essential ingredient in manufacturing methcathinone, was closed. Informants and undercover officers reported that ephedrine is no longer purchased in large quantities and methcathinone availability has been reduced on the street.
The downtown business district had considerable problems with alcoholic vagrants. Chronic offenders were targeted at the beginning of the project. Many of the offenders had multiple arrests resulting in short sentences, which cost taxpayers thousands of dollars. The downtown business community believed that tolerating drunks was simply a part of conducting business. Ordinance violations were strictly enforced, a court watch was established, and trespass warnings were posted. The project was successful.
A police department received an increase in calls for service at a local shopping mall. These problems were generated by large numbers of youths hanging out at an arcade. Mall tenants began to move out, and local residents were enraged about crime spilling into their neighborhood. A CPTED survey revealed that recent changes to the interior of the arcade contributed to the increase in calls. Management at the arcade was unable to supervise patrons and control the premise. The design of the arcade was changed. The Municipal Council adopted new by-laws for future arcades. Problems at the arcade, the mall, and the neighborhood have dropped and remained low.
Gangs, drug-related activity, and violence infiltrated a downtown area threatening local businesses and decreasing the quality of life. The drug traffickers targeted an "undeveloped market" to reap financial profits. The offenders were not just stereotypical drug users, but average citizens. Gang members were prosecuted under organized crime statutes. Code enforcement, liquor boards, and correctional supervision of offenders living in the project area were enhanced. Volunteers and business owners were organized by common concerns, and CPTED principles were used to build defensible space. Violent crime has decreased by 75%, and calls for service and officer-initiated activity have decreased by 35%. Legitimate business activity has been revitalized.